There are several possible causes of male infertility
Infection: One possible cause of male infertility is infection of the prostate, seminal vesicles, urethra, or epididymis. These bacteria may obstruct the transport of sperm or may even attack the testes or epididymis. Although many of these infections may exhibit no symptoms, they can cause permanent scarring and fertility problems. Infections of this nature, are usually treated with antibiotics.
Low Sperm Concentration: Men who are found to have a low sperm count must often undergo a procedure whereby their sperm sample is separated from the seminal fluid and put into a more concentrated form. The concentrated sperm are then artificially inseminated into the woman.
Hormonal Disorders: Sometimes a man may have low levels of hormone production which result in an inability to produce sperm. Although in most instances the cause of this problem is unknown, occasionally, a pituitary tumor may be the cause. The treatment for low sperm production is usually hormonal therapy administered over a period of three to eight months.
Sperm Antibodies: Sperm antibodies in the male may result in impaired sperm motility. These antibodies can interfere with sperm function causing either loss of motility or Sperm Agglutination. Pregnancy may be achieved with sperm washing and intrauterine insemination; IVF may be required.
Surgical Procedures: Sometimes treatments for male infertility may require minor surgical procedures.
Vasectomy Reversal: Surgical reversal of a vasectomy is a procedure which reconnects the ends of the vas deferens so that sperm can once again move from the testicles to the penis. The less time that has lapsed since the vasectomy, the higher the chances of conception. Men who have a reversal within three years of their vasectomy have a greater than 75% chance of conception, between three to eight years it is 53%, after this time chances of conception are approximately 30% to 40%.
Varicocele Treatment: When enlarged veins, known as varicoceles, are present in the scrotum they may have an adverse effect on sperm production by increasing testicular heat. Using a minor surgical procedure, these veins can be closed off so that blood flow can be redirected to deeper veins.
Ductal Obstructions: In some men obstructions of the ejaculatory duct have resulted from scarring or infection. This can often be corrected through a simple 30-minute microsurgical procedure.
Ejaculatory Problems: Sometimes a man’s sperm instead of being propelled forward through the penis is propelled backward into the bladder during ejaculation. This condition may be the result of medications, surgeries, or nerve damage. If this problem is untreatable, sperm can be recovered from the urine and used for artificial insemination.